Feb. 2, 2006 — A new, more robust analysis of recently derived human gene trees by Alan R. Templeton, Ph.D, of Washington University in St Louis, shows three distinct major waves of human migration out of Africa instead of just two, and statistically refutes — strongly — the 'Out of Africa' replacement theory.
reveals an out-of-Africa expansion event at 1.9 million years ago.
Gene flow with isolation by distance was established between African and Eurasian populations by about 1.5 million years ago,
with no detectable interruptions since.
A second out-of-Africa expansion occurred about 700,000 years ago
, and involved interbreeding with at least some Eurasian populations.
A third out-of-Africa event occurred around 100,000 years ago,
and was also characterized by interbreeding,